It has generally been considered that the flowers of Scrophularia are mainly pollinated by wasps. Ortega-Olivencia et al. study the four species with the largest and most striking flowers in Europe and Macaronesia (S. sambucifolia, S. grandiflora, S. trifoliata and S. calliantha) and demonstrate the existence of a mixed pollination system between Hymenoptera and passerine birds. A lizard, Gallotia stehlini, is also found to interact in the pollination system of S. calliantha.
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