Heathlands are human-shaped habitats that have a strong cultural and natural value, adding substantially to many ecosystem services such as food and water supply, carbon sequestration, recreation and biodiversity conservation. Fagúndez reviews the specific response of heathland ecosystems to the main drivers of biodiversity loss, which include land-use changes, pollution, climate change, natural succession and human management, as well as the presence of invasive exotic species. These drivers have generally been treated separately, but their complex interactions demand a more integrated approach in order to predict habitat response to future scenarios.
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