Soil acidity and climate change threaten future food production. Dong et al. investigate the effects of free-air CO2 enrichment (550 vs. 400 µmol mol-1) on plant growth and yield of hexaploid wheat lines differing in Al3+-resistance.
Elevated CO2 increased the grain yield of lines carrying the TaMATE1B (22%) and TaALMT1 (31%) Al3+-resistance genes, but did not increase the grain yield of Al3+-sensitive lines. In addition, elevated CO2promoted vegetative growth of lines carrying TaMATE1B without affecting ear number. This study suggests that Al3+-resistant genes, particularly TaALMT1, should be maintained in wheat germplasm to realise yield potential in acid soils under a future high-CO2 environment.