A smaller stigma-anther separation in annuals seems to indicate a genetic basis for mating system differences.
Research in two new papers shows how ants can interfere with pollination, but this interference is complicated.
When there are unsuitable partners around, Lysimachia arvensis, will alter its herkogamy to favour self pollination over outcrossing with the wrong flowers
The longer a plant waits to self-pollinate, the longer it has to attract pollen from outside. But waiting too long can have consequences.
Ramírez and Hokche evaluated the breeding system, sexual system, dichogamy and herkogamy of herbaceous-shrubby communities from the Gran Sabana Plateau, Venezuela
Reductions in herkogamy with flower positions may be expected in environments with either low pollinator abundance or low nutrients.
Parnassia epunctulata, a herb with generalized pollination, which exhibits sequential stamen movement.
Under drought stress, cross-pollination early in floral lifespan of Collinsia reduces floral longevity, but excess soil moisture does not extend longevity.