In transplant experiments, closely-related sexual and asexual species both showed evidence of local adaptation.
How will silver birch populations across Europe be affected by climate change?
In rosette-forming plants, rosette leaves locate near the ground, and their upper surfaces are exposed, whereas the opposite surfaces are more exposed for leaves on flowering stems.
The results showed moderate thermal acclimation of respiration and no evidence for thermal acclimation of photosynthesis or local genetic adaptation for traits related to thermal acclimation.
Natural selection and genetic drift are important evolutionary forces in determining genetic and phenotypic differentiation in plant populations.