Several fungi had distributions extending into central and northern parts of the continent, illustrating their tolerance of an extraordinarily wide range of environmental conditions.
What makes orchids unique can also make saving them a challenge.
Ophrys sphegodes, the early spider-orchid, is a plant with a very short pollination window. The changing climate is closing that window more and more often as the planet warms.
The first comprehensive molecular phylogeny for Lizard orchids (Himantoglossum), sampling all known taxa across the whole distribution area of the genus.
A single species of male gnat (Mycetophilidae) visits and pollinates the rewardless flowers of P. sanguinea. The gnats often show probing copulatory behaviour on the labellum, leading to its triggering and the temporary entrapment of the gnat in the flower.
Independent nectary evolution of orchid genus Disa has involved both repeated recapitulation of secretory epidermis, and innovation of stomatal nectaries.