Male flowers of Aconitum protect their pollen by adding alkaloids. Without pollen as a reward, botanists asked how the flower compensated pollinators.
They almost literally bite. Glochidiate trichomes in some species of Loasa contain nanocrystalline apatite-cellulose composite, similar to the material found in teeth.
Although lenga beech trees, completely defoliated by caterpillars of Ormiscodes amphimone, do not die, they show reduced growth for at least 2 years.