Tagged: Triticum aestivum


Wheat modelling

WALTer: A 3D wheat model that simulates tillering dynamics

Branching is a main morphogenetic process involved in the adaptation of plants to the environment. In grasses, tillering is divided into three phases: tiller emergence, cessation of tillering and tiller regression. Understanding and prediction of the tillering process is a major challenge to better control cereal yields. Lecarpentier et al. present and evaluate WALTer, an individual-based model of wheat built on simple self-adaptive rules for predicting the tillering dynamics at contrasting sowing densities. WALTer simulates the three-dimensional (3-D) development of the aerial architecture of winter wheat. Tillering was modelled using two main hypotheses: (H1) a plant ceases to initiate new...

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Root trait phenotyping.

Genome-wide association study reveals genomic regions controlling root and shoot traits at late growth stages in wheat

How much wheat do we need? One prediction is we need production to double between 2005 and 2050. This challenge is more difficult due to abiotic stress with climate change. Long Li and colleagues have been examining root system morphology. Root system morphology is important for sustainable agriculture, but the genetic basis of root traits and their relationship to shoot traits remain to be understood. The aim of this study was to dissect the genetic basis of root traits at late growth stages and its implications on shoot traits in wheat. Deep-rooted accessions had lower canopy temperature (CT) and higher...

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Models of plants

FSPM-based investigation of plant interactions in complex wheat canopies

Functional–structural plant models (FSPMs) explicitly describe individual plant architecture, making this approach suitable for unravelling plant–plant interactions in complex canopies. Barillot et al. developed a comprehensive FSPM accounting for the interactions between plant architecture, light, soil nitrogen and the metabolism of carbon and nitrogen. The model is evaluated by simulating the functioning of post-anthesis wheat canopies (Triticum aestivum) of contrasting leaf inclination, arranged in pure and mixed stands. As an emergent property of the detailed metabolism, the model predicts single relationships between absorbed light, carbon assimilation and grain mass. Over the post-anthesis period, planophile plants absorb more light than erectophile...

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Modelling concept

Splash dispersal and disease resistance in mixtures of cultivars with contrasting height

Cultivar mixtures have an important role to play in reducing the propagation of diseases, as is evident from the well-documented results of growing mixtures of cultivars from plants that exhibit different levels of susceptibility to certain pathogens. Although architectural characteristics of cultivars are little considered in mixture design, they could have an effect on disease, in particular through spore dispersal by rain splash, which occurs over short distances. The objective of this work was to assess the impact of plant height of wheat cultivars in mixtures on splash dispersal of Zymoseptoria tritici, which causes septoria tritici leaf blotch. Vidal and...

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Maize nutrient uptake and photosynthesis in intercropping

Maize and wheat are globally important food crops. The two species can be grown as an intercrop, with substantial land sparing in the order of 20%, as expressed by a land equivalent ratio of approximately 1.2. In a recent study published in AoB PLANTS, Gou et al. measured the nutrient uptake and photosynthesis rate of intercropped maize and found that nutrient uptake is constrained by competition with wheat, while photosynthesis rate is not decreased, but – surprisingly – increased. Eco-physiological mechanisms potentially underlying the unexpectedly high photosynthesis rate in intercropped maize are discussed.

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Rhizosheath size of ‘Chinese Spring’ compared with a range of unrelated cultivars

Mapping wheat genes for root hair length in aneuploid lines of bread wheat

Long root hairs enable the efficient uptake of poorly mobile nutrients such as phosphorus. Mapping the chromosomal locations of genes that control root hair length can help exploit the natural variation within crops to develop improved cultivars. Liu et al. used genetic stocks of the wheat (Triticum aestivum) cultivar ‘Chinese Spring’ to map genes controlling root hair length. First, rhizosheath size was assayed as a rapid method to screen the lines. The trait was then verified in selected lines by directly measuring root hair length. Using this method, chromosomal deletion lines were screened to map chromosomal regions controlling root hair...

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Root phenotyping pipeline for the Forno × Oberkulmer mapping population grown in a growth chamber during 2014

Seedling root architectural traits associated with yield in wheat

Roots, the ‘hidden half’ of plants, are notoriously difficult to phenotype. Xie et al. utilise a ‘pouch and wick’ high-throughput phenotyping pipeline to quantify the variation in seedling root system architecture of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) × spelt (Triticum spelta) recombinant inbred line population. Seminal root number and total root length are both positively associated with grain number, above-ground biomass and grain yield at maturity in field, likely resulting from tightly linked genes or pleiotropy. Vigorous early root growth is correlated with improved yield potential. These results have significant implications for wheat breeding.

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Oenanthe oenanthe

C4 Wheat? Lend an ear to hear more

One of the Grand Challenges – and, arguably, the Holy Grail – of plant research at present is an attempt to improve the photosynthetic efficiency of plants. Somewhat surprisingly, the fundamental photosynthetic pathway – which is the ultimate piece of biochemistry used by all plants to incorporate (‘fix’) carbon dioxide into organic molecules such as sugars for the plant’s growth and energy needs – so-called C3 photosynthesis – isn’t as efficient as it could be. One of the reasons for its comparatively low conversion rate of sunlight energy into chemical energy stored within organic molecules is the phenomenon of photorespiration....

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Detailed metabolite concentrations for C (left panels) and N (right panels) for two examples of photosynthetic organs

Simulating carbon and nitrogen patterns using an integrated model of wheat functioning

Based on a mechanistic approach, the CN-Wheat model simulates the fluxes of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) metabolites in wheat plants after anthesis. Barillot et al. show that the CN-Wheat model can be used to predict allocation and dynamics of C and N resources among culm organs in conjunction with observations from field experiments. CN-Wheat also provides insights into how depletion of mobile metabolites caused by grain filling ultimately results in the cessation of resource capture. CN-Wheat appears to be an appropriate model with which to investigate and reveal the myriad functions of integrated plant behaviour.

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Botanical description of the culm structure of wheat as implemented in the model.

A process-based model of C and N metabolism in the wheat culm

Linking traits and metabolic processes to whole plant performance results in improved crops. Barillot et al., present CN-Wheat, a comprehensive and mechanistic model of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) metabolism within wheat culms after anthesis. Culm organs are described explicitly and include structural, storage and mobile metabolites. An innovative aspect of CN-Wheat lies in the regulation of physiological processes by metabolite concentration and the environment perceived by the organs, together with the calculation of the balance of primary metabolites. Thus, metabolite concentrations act as the internal variables that allow for integration of multiple processes.

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